Category Archives for Innovation

To Win At Work: Be A Jack of All Trades, Master of One

Want to double your chances for success? Learn something new. Diversify yourself.
 
The idea of diversifying yourself by learning new skills is a common idea with many names. Scott Adams calls your mix of skills a “talent stack“. Each skill you add to your talent stack roughly doubles your chance of success. He claims that you’re better off becoming proficient (top 75%) at a variety of skills than trying to become world-class (top 99%) at one. Here’s an example of a talent stack in action.
 
Brett McKay at the Art of Manliness describes the T-shaped person. A t-shaped person who has both broad and deep knowledge. A jack of all trades, but master of one. You specialize in a few skills and support them with a broad base of general knowledge. For software developers, this means supplementing your developer skills with skills from other fields
 
I like to think about a portfolio of skills. Like a portfolio of stocks, some skills are rising in value, some skills are dropping in value, and some are steady. Like portfolio of stocks, diversification of skills makes you more valuable.
 
Regardless of what you call it, diversifying your skills is important.

Why?

There are several reasons to diversify yourself.
 
Usefulness
Each skill you learn means you can do more. Each new skills adds to your usefulness as a person.
 
Creativity
The basic process of innovation involves the recombining and transformation of ideas. Each new skill you learn gives you a pile of new ideas you can use to fuel your creativity. Many innovations come from taking skills from one field and applying them to another one. The lean movement in software development borrowed from the lean manufacturing method. Thomas Edison was famous for taking ideas from one field and applying them to another.
 
Empathy
The more skills you learn, the more people you can communicate with. Teddy Roosevelt was famous for this. He read several books a day. His broad knowledge allowed him to communicate with people from many different backgrounds. In software development, learning the terminology of business makes it easier to write requirements. Continuous communication with the business is one of the key tenets of agile software development. Learning about business makes that continuous communication much more productive.
 
Obsolescence
Technology moves at a fast pace. Skills that were valuable a few years ago are worthless today. In some ways, technologists are perpetual beginners. Learning a variety of skills, especially non-technical skills, gives you insurance against obsolescence. Non-technical skills are what separate a senior developer from a junior one.
 

What?

Now that I’ve convinced you to learn something new, where do you begin? I’ll give you the classic consultant answer… it depends. You need to make up your own criteria. Look for a combination of what interests you and what’s useful to others.
 
Here’s a few of my criteria:
Does this help me create common ground with other people? Examples: common hobbies, sports
 
Does this give me a new viewpoint or a new way of looking at problems? Examples: statistics, psychology, economics, design, art
 
Is this applicable to my career? Examples: design patterns, business skills, copy writing, communication skills
 
Is this something fun that I can use to make people laugh? Examples: history, weird trivia, humor
 
Does this increase my objectivity? Examples: argumentation, Stoicism
 

My Own Talent Stack

I cultivate a variety of skills. My primary career goal is to use software to solve difficult problems. I tend to focus on skills that help me do more.
 
Software Development – Primary skill set
Business – I read a lot of business books and study various aspects of marketing and finance. I’m also into small businesses. Most of us are working for businesses. Knowledge of how businesses work and how the business you’re in works is vital to being a good software developer.
Psychology – I love psychology. It gives me a whole new lens when dealing with people. I’m into cognitive and organizational psychology. I look for anything that helps me learn faster or understand human behavior.
Writing – Being able to write clearly is essential for all professionals. Writing clearly is thinking clearly.
Public Speaking – Public speaking is challenging and useful.
History – Those who don’t know history are doomed to repeat it. History also gives me interesting anecdotes to tell at dinner parties.
Philosophy – I’m a big fan of stoic philosophy. It’s a great philosophy for dealing with the chaos of modern life. Finding a practical philosophy of life gives your life structure. Religion works here too.
Design – A little design knowledge goes a long way. I’m no artist, but I can make a decent looking app without a designer. 

How?

There are lots of different ways to learn new things. Many of these methods are easy to integrate into your life. We all have a limited amount of time, so I like to use learning methods that capitalize on otherwise wasted time. My primary target is the time I spend in the car. Additionally, there’s so many inexpensive ways to learn new skills. Here’s a few of the ways you can learn some new skills.

Books
The easiest one is to read books. Books are cheap and accessible. If you don’t have a lot of time to read, get yourself an Audible subscription. Most books are also available in audio form.

Courses
College courses are nice, but there are better options. The Great Courses publishes classes taught by leading professors. I like to listen to them on my way to work. You can also access college level courses through moocs like EdX, Coursera, and iTunes U. Additionally, Udemy has a wide variety of inexpensive courses (wait for their $10 sales).

Commonplace
In order for your hard-won knowledge to be useful, you need to remember it. One method I use to learn better is to keep a commonplace book. A commonplace book is a collection of notes and quotations from the things you’ve read. This used be a common practice, but it’s coming back as people discover how useful it is. I record notes on anything interesting that I read. I also collect scraps of articles and interesting quotations. I keep these in a OneNote notebook that I can refer to. I also review things I’ve read before and add to my commonplace file. This cycle of note taking and review helps me get more out of what I read.

Organizations / Clubs
There’s a meetup for everything. Go find a group of people you can learn from. It’s often easier to talk to someone than to scour the Internet for resources. I’m looking into more agile groups to expand my business skills.

Make Stuff
This is one of the best ways to pick up new skills. If it’s a “maker” skill, like design or programming, build something. Side projects are a great way to learn something new. If it’s not a “maker” skill, like psychology, make something with the knowledge. Write a blog post or a talk. I never feel like I’m proficient until I use my knowledge to make something.

Conclusion

If you want to be more successful, learn a new skill. Each new skill makes you a more useful person. If you want to be more creative, diversify yourself. Diverse knowledge gives you more resources to draw from. If you want to win at work, be a jack of all trades, master of one. There are lots of learning resources at your disposal. Put them to work for you.

How To Deal With Tech Overload: Focus on Value

Golden Hammer

By walknboston (Flickr: Gavel) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons

The technology landscape is exploding with new things to learn. From virtual reality to app enabled refrigerators to the JavaScript flavor of the week, we are drowning in new technologies. Unfortunately, none of these new things are cybernetic brain enhancement. We can only learn so much. What criteria can we use to winnow down the technology avalanche and focus on what is important?

Usefulness should be your primary criteria.

Let’s unpack that a bit.

Software is a tool. We use it to build things of value for people. Either our customers, our users, or ourselves. We build to provide valuable software for people. A lot of developers lose sight of this when they look into new technologies. They fall in love with a technology because it’s shiny, or interesting, or scratches an intellectual itch. It’s the old “golden hammer” antipattern. Find something shiny and use it to build everything, even if it’s not the best tool for the job or doesn’t really improve upon existing technologies. We can do better. By focusing on what’s useful, we can skip the majority of new technologies and keep our sanity.

To figure out what’s useful, we need to ask a few questions. Write down your own answers as you read through this exercise.

Who is your audience?

As developers, we serve one or more audiences. Each of these audiences has different needs. It’s your job to figure out which audiences you serve (or want to serve) and what they need. Perhaps you are spending most of your time in a full-time job, but want to start your own business. Perhaps you just work for the man. Figure out which audiences you serve and their relative priority. If you want to serve a new audience, think about what you will need to learn for them as well. Additionally, look for synergies. If you have more than one audience, find overlapping technologies.For example, if you want to build your own business on the side, use a similar tech stack to the one you use at your job.

Here’s a few audiences you can serve:

Employer

Your employer usually works with a specific tech stack in a certain industry. Focus your efforts on their current tech stack, new versions of that stack, and new technologies that would fit well within their current environment. If you work at a .NET shop, don’t waste your time on Java. If you work on a native iOS or Android team, learning Ionic is a bad plan. Find technologies that help business units create more value. If you don’t know how your business operates, add that to your “to learn” list.
 
A good example of a useful technology would be Docker. Docker allows for faster and more consistent deployments, which helps improve time to market. This can give a business a real competitive advantage. Another good example would be mastering performance tuning in your particular stack. Lot’s of case studies show performance adds to the bottom line.

Public Code / OSS

Open source projects have different goals than enterprise shops. There’s some overlap, but OSS is built differently. If you do OSS, figure out which projects you want to contribute to and focus on their tech stacks. Also think about what value you can bring to the developer community.

Small Business

If you run an app business or an ISV (independent software vendor), focus on technologies that create customer value. For example, while functional programming is cool, you’re better off mastering digital marketing or product design instead. Focus on technologies that help you get products in front of customers quickly. This doesn’t always mean new technology. There are a lot of Rails 2, jQuery, and ASP.NET Webforms apps out there still generating significant value for their customers.

Self

It’s OK to learn something just for fun. Lots of people write code as a hobby, but make sure you understand that the time you spend building robots or smartwatch apps is hobby time, not professional development time.


I have three audiences. I work on a team that builds data driven applications using .NET Core, Angular, TypeScript, and Spark. I also serve the broader technical community by speaking at conferences and blogging. Eventually, I want to build a small software product and sell it. I achieve synergy by focusing my community efforts on things that I either use in my day-to-day work (like Angular) or things that will serve me in business (innovation).

What makes you special?

What special qualities do you bring to the table? Are you an amazing debugger? Are you a UX genius? Are you good at cutting to the core of team issues? Do you have an underrepresented perspective? Everyone has specific skills that are both unusual and valuable. Focus your development efforts on expanding and complementing what makes you special. For example, if you’re a talented at building user interfaces, spend the time to skill up on Angular or React. If you’re the performance expert, check out that shiny new profiling tool. It’s often better to expand a strength than moderate a weakness. 
 
——
 
I know more about UX and front end development than most of the .NET developers I work with. I’m also good at keeping my cool when things get crazy. People have called me “Spock” before, which I take as a compliment. I also have a variety of non-developer skills, like public speaking and psychology, that allow me to think differently.

What do you already know?

Take inventory of your current skills. Focus your efforts on technologies that expand what you can do with your current skills. For example, if you know Ember and Angular, investing effort in learning React is going to net you diminishing returns. However, investing in Web API, Electron, or Ionic will add new capabilities to your skillset. Realize that specific technologies fade with time, but investing in fundamentals is always a good bet. Who knows what the JavaScript ecosystem is going to look like next year, but knowing the fundamentals of JavaScript, performance optimization, and UX will still be valuable.
 
——
 
My current skill set revolves around Angular, TypeScript, SQL Server, and ASP.NET MVC. I want to learn more about data tools, especially the ones in Visual Studio. The Microsoft ecosystem is gaining some interesting data capabilities that can add a lot of value.  I may also do an exploration of Ionic 2 and progressive web applications. Both of those are good ways to use existing skills in a new way. I’m also working on my public speaking and written communication. Communications skills never become obsolete. 

Practical Application

Now that you know what’s useful for your situation, let’s use that knowledge to make your life easier. You likely have a list of technologies that you’re interested in or feel obligated to keep up with. I have a whole radar of them. Take that list and run it through the criteria you figured out. If the technology doesn’t help you add value to one of your audiences, cross it off the list. Rank everything else based on its relative value.  Use your criteria to combat “shiny object” syndrome when you encounter a new technology. You’ll likely still have more things on your list than you can learn, but your list should be manageable.

If you want to survive the constant stream of new technologies with your sanity intact, make your primary technology criteria value.

Building Tech Radars for Fun and Profit

The technology landscape is exploding. New technologies, platforms, and tools are being creating at an ever-increasing rate. VR, AR, and wearables give us new app stores to target and new experiences to create. Conversational UI (Alexa, Bots, Cortana API) is a totally new way to interact with users, and another dozen different platforms you can target. Even the web space is exploding. It feels like there’s a new JavaScript framework roughly every ten minutes.

All of the new stuff is amazing, but also exhausting. There’s so many new things out there. Finding your focus is hard.

confused kitty

Keeping track of all this new stuff is tough, but we have tools to help us. One of those tools is tech radar. A technology radar is a collection of new technologies and how important they are to you or your organization. You enumerate new technologies and assign them a value somewhere between “run away screaming” and “let’s use this for EVERYTHING”.

The tech radar was created by Thoughtworks. They publish their radar a couple of times a year. It’s a great snapshot of what technologies they are using in their organization. I recommend you check it out.

Thoughtworks Tech Radar

While the Thoughtworks tech radar is great, it’s more fun (and useful) to do it yourself. Neil Ford has a fantastic talk about building your own tech radar. Check it out here:

In his talk, Neil mentions two tech radars. One for your company and one for yourself. After viewing this talk, I was hooked by the idea and decided to give it a try. I’ve worked on both styles of tech radar and learned a few things along the way. 

Organizational Tech Radars

An organizational tech radar is a picture of the technologies used in your company along with recommendations for new things you should keep an eye on. Your team sorts technologies into one of four categories.

Adopt – Use when appropriate. This is a default best practice.
Trial – Use on non-critical projects. Good, but not 100% there yet.
Assess – Keep an eye on this. Use it for POCs and Demos.
Hold – Avoid using this on new projects.

To conduct a tech radar, get representatives of the different teams in your organization together and have them discuss some of the new technologies they are using or interested in using. Assign each technology to the proper category and record the highlights of each conversation.

Shoot for fewer than 30 people per discussion session. Try to get a diverse slice of your organization’s tech users. If your organization has teams outside of generic enterprise app dev, make sure they get a seat at the table. (examples: designers, SharePoint Devs, Salesforce Devs, DBAs, DevOps, mobile devs, etc… )

I’m involved in two different organizational tech radars. One as the primary organizer and another as an observer. It’s been an educational and useful experience. I’ve gained insight into some of the dynamics behind how technology is used in these two organizations.

One of the major benefits of doing a tech radar is that you deepen your understanding of how technology is used in your organization. You also gain insight into what different people are thinking. It can highlight blind spots in your own thinking and surface interesting technologies to check out. Another benefit is that it can make your organization more proactive about technology adoption. By knowing what’s available, you can begin to plan earlier. You also gain consensus about which technologies to adopt. It’s a lot easier than trying to campaign for new technologies on your own.

It’s not all rainbows and puppy dogs though. I ran into several challenges while coordinating my organization’s tech radar. First, I had to make a special effort to represent all the developer communities in my organization. We have a lot of practices and not all of them came to the discussion meetings. Next time, I may hold special meetings for each group.

The second hurdle I ran into was that everyone was very focused on things to adopt now, as opposed to future technologies. This issue was relatively easy to solve. We created a new category for “obvious best practices” and focused more on the “trial” and “assess” categories. Don’t be afraid to make tech radar your own. You don’t have to copy Thoughtworks verbatim. I found that making a category for things that aren’t new, but part of your default tech stack, cleared up the “adopt” list and kept the radar future forward. It also provides you with a handy list of architectural recommendations for new projects.

The final challenge was dealing with all the conversations. It was easy to go off on tangents or get caught up in how you feel about a particular technology. It’s tough to keep on track. One way we addressed the issue was by splitting up the meetings into small chunks. It’s easier to schedule and no one gets burned out from a 4 hour meeting from hell.

Overall, I found this exercise highly beneficial. I learned a lot and picked up a few technologies for my tech radar.

Personal Tech Radars

If you’re like me, you have “the list”. Sometimes referred to as “the guilt list”, because I never finish it. It’s the pile of technologies you intend to research. If that sounds vague, that’s because it is. “to research” doesn’t really give you  a finishing point. I built a personal tech radar to help clear up that ambiguity.

For me, a personal tech radar is a much less formal affair than the organization radar. It’s also, by necessity, a smaller one. I changed the definition of the categories. Instead of focusing on adoption, my categories focused on how much effort I want to put into learning the technology. Here are my categories and a few examples for each one.

Adopt
Agitate for use and learn deeply. This is for your core skills.
Examples: .NET Core, Angular 2, TypeScript, Azure

Trial
Seek functional knowledge on. Build a demo apps or POCs.
Examples: Python, Spark, R, Progressive Web Apps

Assess
Keep an eye on it, but don’t worry about getting deep knowledge.
Examples: Hololens, Unity, Xamarin, Chatbots

Hold
Avoid using when possible. Don’t waste a lot of time learning new things about this tech.
Examples: Old ASP.NET, Angular 1

I only had one challenge with my personal tech radar. I’m interested in everything, so I had a lot of trouble keeping my categories small enough to be doable. I consider this a feature, not a bug. Doing this exercise forced me to take a holistic view about what I’m interested in and edit accordingly. I also did some journaling about where I wanted to go in my career, which helped clarify my thinking. For example, I realized that learning data analysis is a better use of my energy than learning native mobile development. I’m still keeping an eye on mobile, but it’s not a top priority for me. Overall, it narrowed my scope and helped me focus.

Conclusion

If you want to better deal with the ever-growing deluge of new technologies, consider doing a tech radar. Both the organizational and personal flavors offer insights that you can use in your daily developer practice. It’s a great way to end the year.

PS – For some reason, I think of this song every time I bring up Tech Radar.

 

Great Reads for Innovators

As technologists, we are the vanguard of innovation. We’re at the forefront of technological innovation. Even if you’re slagging COBOL in the basement of some bank, you’re still dragging your organization into the future. Ever wonder how that process actually happens? What can you do to be more creative?

I’m fascinated by this topic, so I put together a talk about it.  (abstract / slides) It distills what I’ve learned from reading dozens of books on innovation and the history of technology. To save you some time, I put together a list of my favorite innovation related reads. If you’re curious about this topic, these books are a good place to start.

Books for Innovators

Sapiens

Sapiens is a highly entertaining, unorthodox view of human history. Not only is it informative, it challenges basic assumptions about ideas that most people don’t realize they’re making. It’s a great description of early human history and how we got to the modern age. It’ll really open up your mind.

Geography of Genius

Innovation is not evenly distributed. There are certain times and places throughout history that have “golden ages” of innovation. Geography of Genius explores a few of these places and tries to find what ties them all together. This book is very interesting and you’ll learn about some places that you don’t see much of in the classroom.

Evolution of Everything

Unlike what the history books tell us, innovation is more bottom up than top down. Matt Ridley does a fantastic job describing how in Evolution of Everything. He covers a several major innovations including religion, money, and government. This book challenges many deeply held beliefs and illustrates how innovation is an evolutionary process.

Smarter Better Faster

This book offers a more tactical look at creativity. It’s also a great guide to improving other aspects of mental performance. Charles Duhigg does a fantastic job mixing science with fascinating stories.

Deep Work

Creativity requires concentration. A commodity in short supply in the modern age. In Deep Work, Cal Newport makes a compelling argument for making “deep work” (focused work) one of your primary priorities. I changed several of my habits after reading this one.

Competing Against Luck

While I enjoyed the Lean Startup, I felt like it treated innovation more like a roulette wheel than a process you can influence. “Just pivot until you make it big or run out of money.” In Competing Against Luck, Clayton Christensen describes a fantastic intellectual power tool for building new products. The “Jobs to Be Done” theory of innovation. If you want to build a product, I highly recommend this one.

The Righteous Mind

One of the most important things you can do to become more innovative is empathize with and learn from people whom you disagree with. We live in a society that’s increasingly polarized, but this book the antidote. In the Righteous Mind, Jonathan Haidt explains the moral foundations for different political outlooks and makes a strong case for civility in political discourse.  This is a must read if you have trouble dealing with people who don’t share your beliefs.

Bonus Materials:

Here are a few non-book resources to check out:

Protopia (Kevin Kelly)

Kevin Kelly’s concept of protopia (as opposed to utopia or dystopia) is really enlightening.

In How to Fail at Almost Everything and Still Win Big, cartoonist and business author Scott Adams describes his “success formula”. Each area you master roughly doubles your odds of great success. This is a great case for diversifying yourself. You can either get his book or read this article:

Dilbert Creator Scott Adams Reveals The Simple Formula That Will Double Your Odds Of Success

If you’re looking to diversify yourself, here are two excellent resources:

Personal MBA

The Personal MBA is a reading list that’s meant to give you the business skills taught by an MBA program. I’ve read many books on this list and have not been disappointed. It’s also got great selections on personal finance and psychology.

The Great Courses (Amazon)

The Great Courses are a series of college level lectures that you can listen to in your car. Personally, I’m a big fan of their history selection. They also have courses on psychology, philosophy, and business.

Why Innovation Thrives in Cities

Innovation is partly a network effect. This article describes why cities with a higher population density have higher per capita rates of innovation.

Everything is a Remix is a video series about cultural innovation by Kirby Ferguson. I have yet to find a better description of how culture is generated by remixing other cultural elements.

This is a TED talk on how Google X (Google’s own skunkworks company) takes risks and creates a culture that fosters psychological safety.

Conclusion

This list of resources will open your mind and help you become a better innovator. If you think I missed something, feel free to drop it in the comments.

 

What We Need More of is Hubris: A Review of Zero to One

What We Need More of is Hubris: A Review of Zero to One

We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters.

– Peter Thiel

According to Peter Thiel, an amazing future lies ahead. All we have to do is build it. Unfortunately, cultural shifts have steered us away from audacious, grandiose, and truly innovative projects. We need to stop focusing on making slight improvements to existing technology (going from 1 to 1+n) and start making new things (going from 0 to 1). In short, we need more of the hubris that America has had in past decades.

Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future is an excellent book by the self proclaimed contrarian and billionaire Peter Thiel. It’s about building startups and thinking big. Zero to One will inspire you and make you think. It’s one of the few business books that can’t be re-written in five pages.

Contrarian Truth

Zero to One starts off with a big question:

What important truth do very few people agree on?

This is a tough question to answer well. Most people come up with something widely believed, like the healthcare system is broken, or an opinion, like how chocolate ice cream is better than vanilla. The key is to find something that is both true and unpopular.

For example, think about the housing crisis. Right before the crisis, the important truth was “the housing bubble is about to pop”. Most people thought the good times were going to last, but some people saw the impending crunch. They used that knowledge to make a lot of money, while the rest of the country lost their shirts.

Finding these contrarian truths gives you an insight into the future. An insight that can you can use to build a business or make an investment. Think of how many truths we take for granted today that were science fiction a few decades ago.

  • We can prevent most infectious disease.
  • It is possible for humans to land on the moon.
  • We will have enough food to feed everyone on the planet.
  • The Internet will connect the world with each other

These things were once considered impossible, but now are obvious.

Here’s a few contrarian truths that I think about on a regular basis:

  • The world is a becoming a much better place for all humanity, despite what the news tells you.
  • Deference to authority is not a good tool for solving social problems.
  • The first human to live past 150 years old is probably alive today.
  • Most people won’t drive cars in 20 years.

So when looking for business opportunities, you should ask yourself: What valuable business is nobody building?

Zero to One vs. The Lean Startup

a startup is the largest group of people you can convince of a plan to build a different future.

– Peter Thiel

Since the .com bubble popped, the startup community has moved towards the Lean Startup model.

The Lean Startup model goes as follows:

  1. Target an existing market with competitors or take something that already exists and apply it in a new context. ie. rip, pivot, and jam
  2. Build a small version of your product. (a Minimum Viable Product)
  3. Release that product and gauge it’s traction
  4. Evaluate the tests and either:
    a. Make small incremental changes to improve the product
    b. Pivot into a new product
  5. Release the new version and test again
    … repeat 4-5 until out of money or you have a killer business.

The beauty of this approach is that it’s a scientific way to build a business. No one knows exactly what’s going to work, so you run as many tests as you can to get to a market.

Thiel doesn’t agree with this method. He advocates something a little different. His philosophy is that startups should make big plans and carve out their own monopoly. They can do this in one of two ways.

  1. Make a 10x improvement over an existing product. (Google did this with search)
  2. Make a totally new product segment.

In my experience, I have noticed that most big companies fall into the category of 10x improvements. Even companies that are credited with creating new markets, like Apple, are usually just improving existing technology. MP3 players, smartphones, tablets, and smart watches all existed before Apple took them to the next level. When I think of companies that made something new, I think about Pirates of Silicon Valley

He also mentions that head to head competition always results in a drop in profits. Look at any commodity market and you will notice that profit margins are razor thin. To avoid this, you need to stay so far ahead of the competition that you can charge enough to make a healthy profit. This profit can then be used to build moonshots or attract the best employees by giving them a world class working environment. Google is a great example of this. Thier monopoly status allows them to treat their employees like royalty while trying to tackle large problems.

To build a monopoly, Thiel advocates starting small and dominating a niche market. Be the big fish in the small pond. I think the bootstrapping community has this down on the small scale. They advocate niching down your product so that it serves your target audience perfectly. The primary difference with Zero to One is that once you master that small scale niche, you then expand your reach. Facebook is a great example of this. It started off with just one college and spread like a zombie plague from school to school. I remember the day when Facebook arrived at my school. Nearly everyone on campus was signed up within a week. It was insane.

Honestly, I think Thiel overstates his contrarian-ness here. While his criticisms of the lean model are legitimate, his alternative is very similar. Start small and blow up. I like how he focuses on sales, which is a dirty word to most developers. The importance of selling is often understated in the Valley. Even the best product will fail is no one’s heard of it.

Fail to plan or plan to fail

Shallow men believe in luck, believe in circumstances… Strong men believe in cause and effect
– Ralph Waldo Emerson

Indefinite attitudes about the future explain what’s most dysfunctional in our world today. Process trumps substance
– Peter Thiel

One of the major themes of Zero to One is the importance of making plans. One of the biggest problems with our society right now is this indefinite attitude towards the future. America used to be a country of big ideas. Even normal people felt they could come up with something big and pitch it to the public. Today, people who think big are often attacked. Ambitious initiatives, like seasteading and life extension, are regularly attacked by lovers of the status quo. If people like Tim Ferriss or Peter Thiel are indicative, having detractors is evidence that you are doing something right. People who change the world are going to make some enemies.

Conclusion

The most contrarian thing of all is not to oppose the crowd but to think for yourself.
– Peter Thiel

The best part of Zero to One is that it will make you think. Unlike many business books, which can be summarized in a page or two, Zero to One is packed full of interesting and useful information. It’s one of my favorite business books and I think that it’s a good book for developers who want to build something great.